## Latex Guide - Read carefully before start posting!!

Discussions for the Core part of the syllabus. Algebra, Functions and equations, Circular functions and trigonometry, Vectors, Statistics and probability, Calculus. IB Maths HL Revision Notes

### Latex Guide - Read carefully before start posting!!

IBmaths4u.com is the first forum introducing the addition of LaTeX mathematical typesetting for IB mathematics(HL,SL,studies).
LaTeX is a professional-grade general typesetting system that centers around very pleasing mathematical presentation. Mathematical expressions are written in a markup style somewhat similar to HTML.
You may include LaTeX graphics in any post here on IBmaths4u.com
To include a LaTeX graphic, simply include your LaTeX code within the tags [ tex][ /tex]. without spaces.
Or by using the rightmost button in editing bar as shown in the following image.

Basic Guidelines
Lines and Text. \\ starts a new line, \ includes a space, \mbox{...} includes text

Sub- and Superscripts.
Code: Select all
 $$x^3$$
produces $x^3$ while
Code: Select all
$$x_{2n}$$
produces $x_{2n}$
Here is another example:
Code: Select all
$$\log_{5} 125=3$$
gives $\log_{5} 125=3$

Fractions. Use \frac to display fractions.
Example:
Code: Select all
$$\frac{\pi^2}{6}$$
gives $\frac{\pi^2}{6}$.

Roots. Use \sqrt. For instance,
Code: Select all
$$\sqrt{a^3+b^4}$$
produces $\sqrt{a^2+b^2}$

You can also get “other” roots:
Code: Select all
$$\sqrt[4]{5}$$
yields $\sqrt[4]{5}$.

Various examples
Code:
Code: Select all
$$\frac{1}{2^n} \rightarrow 0$$

produces the graphic $\frac{2}{3^n} \rightarrow 0$

Code:
Code: Select all
$$\int_a^b f(x) dx = 2$$

produces the graphic
$\int_a^b f(t) dt = 1$

Code:
Code: Select all
$$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} = e$$

produces the graphic
$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} = e$

Plus or minus

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$$\pm$$

produces the graphic
$\pm$

multiplication or dot product

Code: Select all
$$a\cdot b$$

produces the graphic
$a\cdot b$

Equals sign and inequalities

To get an equals sign, you simply use the ordinary = sign.
Code: Select all
 $$2+3=5$$

produces the graphic
$2+3=5$

For 'not equal to', use \not=

Code: Select all
$$2^4\not=2$$

produces the graphic
$2^3\not=3$

For less than signs, we use <, and for greater than signs, we use >

For 'less than or equal to' signs, we use \leq, and for 'greater than or equal to' signs we use \geq

Code: Select all
$$x^2 \geq 0$$

produces the graphic
$x^2 \geq 0$

For spaces, use "\ ".

Sigma notation

To write sums, we use the \sum command.

Code: Select all
$$\sum_{i=1}^n i^2 = \frac{1}{6}n(n+1)(2n+1)$$

produces the graphic
$\sum_{i=1}^n i^2 = \frac{1}{6}n(n+1)(2n+1)$

Differentiation

We use \frac{}{} to write dy/dx.

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$$\frac{d}{dx} x^4 = 4x^3$$

produces the graphic
$\frac{d}{dx} x^4 = 4x^3$

For f'(x), simply write it out normally within TeX tags.

Code: Select all
$$f'(x)$$

produces the graphic
$f'(x)$

Integration

For the integral sign, use the \int command.

Code: Select all
$$\int 3x^2\ dx = x^3 + C$$

produces the graphic
$\int 3x^2\ dx = x^3 + C$

For definite integrals, use the commands for subscripts and superscripts.

Code: Select all
$$\int^1_0 x\ dx =0.5$$

produces the graphic
$\int^1_0 x\ dx =0.5$

Modulus sign or absolute value

Use | for the modulus sign.

Code: Select all
$$\sqrt{x^2} = |x|$$

produces the graphic
$\sqrt{x^2} = |x|$

Factorial

Use the exclamation mark like normal.

Code: Select all
$$3! = 6$$

produces the graphic
$3! = 6$

n choose r

Code: Select all
$$^n\mathrm{C}_r$$

produces the graphic
$^n\mathrm{C}_r$

Greek Letters

Write \x where x is the written form of the Greek letter (i.e. alpha, beta, gamma, ... , omega).

Code: Select all
$$\pi$$

produces the graphic
$\pi$

Code: Select all
$$\theta$$

produces the graphic
$\theta$

Infinity

To insert the infinity symbol, use \infty.

Code: Select all
$$\infty$$

produces the graphic
$\infty$

Trigonometry

Code: Select all
$$\cos \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\cos \theta$

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$$\sin \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\sin \theta$

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$$\tan \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\tan \theta$

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$$\sec \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\sec \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\mathrm{cosec} \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\mathrm{cosec} \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\csc \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\csc \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\cot \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\cot \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\sin^2 \theta + \cos^2 \theta=1$$

produces the graphic
$\sin^2 \theta + \cos^2 \theta=1$

To write 'degrees', you could use the \circ command.

Code: Select all
$$\cos 60^{\circ} = \frac{1}{2}$$

produces the graphic
$\cos 60^{\circ} = \frac{1}{2}$

Logarithms

Code: Select all
$$\ln x^5 = 5 \ln x$$

produces the graphic
$\ln x^5 = 5 \ln x$

Code: Select all
$$\log_{10} x^2 = 2 \log_{10} x$$

produces the graphic
$\log_{10} x^2 = 2 \log_{10} x$

Matrices

Code: Select all
$$\begin{pmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{pmatrix}$$

produces the graphic
$\begin{pmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{pmatrix}$

Determinants

Code: Select all
$$\begin{vmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{vmatrix}$$

produces the graphic
$\begin{vmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{vmatrix}$

vectors, simply write a matrix with only one column:

Code: Select all
$$\begin{pmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \end{pmatrix}$$

produces the graphic
$\begin{pmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \end{pmatrix}$

Code: Select all
$$\vec{a}$$

produces the graphic
$\vec{a}$

Limits

Code: Select all
$$\displaystyle\lim_{x\to 0}$$

produces the graphic
$\displaystyle\lim_{x\to 0}$

Sets

Code: Select all
$$\cup$$

produces the graphic
$\cup$

Code: Select all
$$\cap$$

produces the graphic
$\cap$

Code: Select all
$$\subset$$

produces the graphic
$\subset$

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$$\subseteq$$

produces the graphic
$\subseteq$

Code: Select all
$$\nsubseteq$$

produces the graphic
$\nsubseteq$

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$$\in$$

produces the graphic
$\in$

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$$\not\in$$

produces the graphic
$\not\in$

Code: Select all
$$\mathbb{P}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{P}$

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$$\mathbb{N}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{N}$

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$$\mathbb{Z}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{Z}$

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$$\mathbb{I}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{I}$

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$$\mathbb{Q}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{Q}$

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$$\mathbb{R}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{R}$

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$$\mathbb{C}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{C}$

Code: Select all
$$\forall$$ gives

produces the graphic
$\forall$

Logic Symbols

Code: Select all
$$\forall$$

produces the graphic
$\forall$

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$$\land$$

produces the graphic
$\land$

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$$\lor$$

produces the graphic
$\lor$

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$$\exists$$

produces the graphic
$\exists$

Code: Select all
$$\neg$$

produces the graphic
$\neg$

Code: Select all
$$\sim$$

produces the graphic
$\sim$
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