## Guide For Latex

### Guide For Latex

IBmaths4u.com is the first forum introducing the addition of LaTeX mathematical typesetting for IB mathematics(HL,SL,studies).
LaTeX is a professional-grade general typesetting system that centers around very pleasing mathematical presentation. Mathematical expressions are written in a markup style somewhat similar to HTML.
You may include LaTeX graphics in any post here on IBmaths4u.com
To include a LaTeX graphic, simply include your LaTeX code within the tags [ tex][ /tex]. without spaces.
Or by using the rightmost button in editing bar as shown in the following image.

Basic Guidelines
Lines and Text. \\ starts a new line, \ includes a space, \mbox{...} includes text

Sub- and Superscripts.
Code: Select all
$$x^3$$
produces $x^3$ while
Code: Select all
$$x_{2n}$$
produces $x_{2n}$
Here is another example:
Code: Select all
$$\log_{5} 125=3$$
gives $\log_{5} 125=3$

Fractions. Use \frac to display fractions.
Example:
Code: Select all
$$\frac{\pi^2}{6}$$
gives $\frac{\pi^2}{6}$.

Roots. Use \sqrt. For instance,
Code: Select all
$$\sqrt{a^3+b^4}$$
produces $\sqrt{a^2+b^2}$

You can also get “other” roots:
Code: Select all
$$\sqrt[4]{5}$$
yields $\sqrt[4]{5}$.

Various examples
Code:
Code: Select all
$$\frac{1}{2^n} \rightarrow 0$$

produces the graphic $\frac{2}{3^n} \rightarrow 0$

Code:
Code: Select all
$$\int_a^b f(t) dt = 1$$

produces the graphic
$\int_a^b f(t) dt = 1$

Code:
Code: Select all
$$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} = e$$

produces the graphic
$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n!} = e$

Plus or minus

Code: Select all
$$\pm$$

produces the graphic
$\pm$

multiplication or dot product

Code: Select all
$$a\cdot b$$

produces the graphic
$a\cdot b$

Equals sign and inequalities

To get an equals sign, you simply use the ordinary = sign.
Code: Select all
$$2+3=5$$

produces the graphic
$2+3=5$

For 'not equal to', use \not=

Code: Select all
$$2^4\not=2$$

produces the graphic
$2^3\not=3$

For less than signs, we use <, and for greater than signs, we use >

For 'less than or equal to' signs, we use \leq, and for 'greater than or equal to' signs we use \geq

Code: Select all
$$x^2 \geq 0$$

produces the graphic
$x^2 \geq 0$

For spaces, use "\ ".

Sigma notation

To write sums, we use the \sum command.

Code: Select all
$$\sum_{i=1}^n i^2 = \frac{1}{6}n(n+1)(2n+1)$$

produces the graphic
$\sum_{i=1}^n i^2 = \frac{1}{6}n(n+1)(2n+1)$

Differentiation

We use \frac{}{} to write dy/dx.

Code: Select all
$$\frac{d}{dx} x^4 = 4x^3$$

produces the graphic
$\frac{d}{dx} x^4 = 4x^3$

For f'(x), simply write it out normally within TeX tags.

Code: Select all
$$f'(x)$$

produces the graphic
$f'(x)$

Integration

For the integral sign, use the \int command.

Code: Select all
$$\int 3x^2\ dx = x^3 + C$$

produces the graphic
$\int 3x^2\ dx = x^3 + C$

For definite integrals, use the commands for subscripts and superscripts.

Code: Select all
$$\int^1_0 x\ dx =0.5$$

produces the graphic
$\int^1_0 x\ dx =0.5$

Modulus sign or absolute value

Use | for the modulus sign.

Code: Select all
$$\sqrt{x^2} = |x|$$

produces the graphic
$\sqrt{x^2} = |x|$

Factorial

Use the exclamation mark like normal.

Code: Select all
$$3! = 6$$

produces the graphic
$3! = 6$

n choose r

Code: Select all
$$^n\mathrm{C}_r$$

produces the graphic
$^n\mathrm{C}_r$

Greek Letters

Write \x where x is the written form of the Greek letter (i.e. alpha, beta, gamma, ... , omega).

Code: Select all
$$\pi$$

produces the graphic
$\pi$

Code: Select all
$$\theta$$

produces the graphic
$\theta$

Infinity

To insert the infinity symbol, use \infty.

Code: Select all
$$\infty$$

produces the graphic
$\infty$

Trigonometry

Code: Select all
$$\cos \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\cos \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\sin \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\sin \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\tan \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\tan \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\sec \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\sec \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\mathrm{cosec} \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\mathrm{cosec} \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\csc \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\csc \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\cot \theta$$

produces the graphic
$\cot \theta$

Code: Select all
$$\sin^2 \theta + \cos^2 \theta=1$$

produces the graphic
$\sin^2 \theta + \cos^2 \theta=1$

To write 'degrees', you could use the \circ command.

Code: Select all
$$\cos 60^{\circ} = \frac{1}{2}$$

produces the graphic
$\cos 60^{\circ} = \frac{1}{2}$

Logarithms

Code: Select all
$$\ln x^5 = 5 \ln x$$

produces the graphic
$\ln x^5 = 5 \ln x$

Code: Select all
$$\log_{10} x^2 = 2 \log_{10} x$$

produces the graphic
$\log_{10} x^2 = 2 \log_{10} x$

Matrices

Code: Select all
$$\begin{pmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{pmatrix}$$

produces the graphic
$\begin{pmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{pmatrix}$

Determinants

Code: Select all
$$\begin{vmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{vmatrix}$$

produces the graphic
$\begin{vmatrix} -2 & 6 & 7 \\2 & -5 & 1 \\1 & 2 & 3 \end{vmatrix}$

vectors, simply write a matrix with only one column:

Code: Select all
$$\begin{pmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \end{pmatrix}$$

produces the graphic
$\begin{pmatrix} x \\ y \\ z \end{pmatrix}$

Code: Select all
$$\vec{a}$$

produces the graphic
$\vec{a}$

Limits

Code: Select all
$$\displaystyle\lim_{x\to 0}$$

produces the graphic
$\displaystyle\lim_{x\to 0}$

Sets

Code: Select all
$$\cup$$

produces the graphic
$\cup$

Code: Select all
$$\cap$$

produces the graphic
$\cap$

Code: Select all
$$\subset$$

produces the graphic
$\subset$

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$$\subseteq$$

produces the graphic
$\subseteq$

Code: Select all
$$\nsubseteq$$

produces the graphic
$\nsubseteq$

Code: Select all
$$\in$$

produces the graphic
$\in$

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$$\not\in$$

produces the graphic
$\not\in$

Code: Select all
$$\mathbb{P}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{P}$

Code: Select all
$$\mathbb{N}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{N}$

Code: Select all
$$\mathbb{Z}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{Z}$

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$$\mathbb{I}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{I}$

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$$\mathbb{Q}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{Q}$

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$$\mathbb{R}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{R}$

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$$\mathbb{C}$$

produces the graphic
$\mathbb{C}$

Code: Select all
$$\forall$$ gives

produces the graphic
$\forall$

Logic Symbols

Code: Select all
$$\forall$$

produces the graphic
$\forall$

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$$\land$$

produces the graphic
$\land$

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$$\lor$$

produces the graphic
$\lor$

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$$\exists$$

produces the graphic
$\exists$

Code: Select all
$$\neg$$

produces the graphic
$\neg$

Code: Select all
$$\sim$$

produces the graphic
$\sim$
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